Final step: a saint

The final step, and goal for all Catholics, is to be a saint. Some will be declared a saint by the Church, others will remain known to those in heaven, for that’s what being a saint is all about: living in the presence of God in heaven. 

As we close out the final week of the liturgical calendar, the Gospel readings for daily Mass remind us to be vigilant for the end — be that the end of the world or the end of our lives. This reminder harkens to the celebrations that began the month, the feast of All Saints and the memorial of All Souls. While we may be waylaid in purgatory to cleanse us of any residuals of sin and heal us of any scars caused by it, we know that we will make it to heaven. We can help the souls in purgatory now by our prayers and acts of charity. Likewise those in heaven are cheering us on and interceding for us. We look to those named saints as role models for our lives and provide spiritual guidance of how to do God’s will. 

Being declared saints first requires living the missions given by God, putting God first in life and sharing His gifts with others. As Bishop Barron says, “Your life is not about you.” Exit living in the ego and accept the role God gives for participating in His will. Illustrating a connection with God by charity in life, perhaps after passing from this life the cause will be taken up to propose sainthood. After passing through the various steps of Servant of God, Venerable, and Blessed, it is with another miracle attributed to intercession of the candidate that the final review and approval of the pope completes the journey to being canonized as a saint. 

The road to sainthood may be fast, happening in mere decades in earthly time, or can linger across the centuries. Canonized saints included the poor shepherd children of Fatima (canonized in 2017) and the Queen of Scotland (canonized in 1250). From the first martyr, Saint Stephen, whose death is documented into the Acts of the Apostles, to Saint Teresa of Kolkata, who died in 1997 and was canonized 19 years later in 2016, the lives of the saints are documented across the span of Church history. Young, old, rich, poor, laity, and religious, there is a saint for each person to find a kindred spirit. 

While it is good to have a spiritual mentor, let us not forget that God calls us to our own mission in His will. He has put us in this time and place to be His hands and voice. Our goal may be to be a saint in heaven, but let us not seek the glory of being declared a saint, but rather accept God’s purpose for our lives and let His glory shine through all the way to heaven. 

Blessed

On the road to sainthood, the third stage is beatification . This changes the person’s title from Venerable to Blessed.

In order for a person to be beatified, a miracle needs to be attributed to their intercession. This can be misinterpreted as the saint causing the miracle, but closely reading official documents clearly indicates that the miracle is via their intercession. Why the distinction? Because only God can perform a miracle. According to the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, a miracle is a scientifically inexplicable occurrence by the grace of God through the intercession of a Venerable or Blessed. Often in recent times, an unexplained healing has occurred to a person having a disease or malady to which there is no treatment. By praying to a singular Venerable and seeking their intercession, when a miracle occurs, it seems likely that the Venerable is in heaven and able to intercede on our behalf. Rigorous investigation is conducted by both medical professionals as well as the Congregation for the Causes of Saints at the Vatican. If the investigation proves in favor of the Venerable, the cause is presented to the Pope, who will grant the beatification. A special prayer, Mass, or Divine Office may be authorized by the Pope for the candidate, who is now considered Blessed.

How long does it take to be beatified and made a saint? It depends. In researching those with the title of Blessed, I found Blessed Notker the Stammerer. Notker was born around 840 and died about 912. He was beatified in 1512. It took this Swiss monk 600 years to be beatified. And he has remained at that title for over 500 years. Will he ever achieve the title of saint? Perhaps that’s the wrong question to ask. Does it really matter if he’s declared a saint here on earth? If he is in heaven, he is with God and he is a saint. Our declaration of him as such means little to him now. In a way, his longevity as a Blessed is an excellent opportunity to look at the how’s and the why’s of sainthood and the process involved in declaring a person a saint. The Church put this process together to avoid declarations of saints by popular sentiment. The Church requires the proof of a miracle so that when we look to a person as a role model of faith, we can be assured of God’s approval. After all, it is God who performs the miracle. 

Yet the process of beatification can also occur quite quickly. Just last October 2020, Carlo Acutis was beatified. This 15-year-old from Italy died in 2006 of leukemia, but left a legacy of devotion to the Eucharist. Carlo is best known for documenting Eucharistic miracles around the world and cataloguing them onto a website, miracolieucaristici.org. The miracle attributed to Carlo was of a young Brazilian boy with a serious birth defect. The boy and his mother attended a prayer service the parish priest organized to encourage his congregation to seek Carlo’s intercession for whatever healing was needed.  The boy was cured immediately after the prayer service and leaves little doubt as to whom to attribute the healing intercession

The road to saint illustrates that the candidates, whether they are Servants of God, Venerables, or Blesseds, seek God’s will in all things. They can only intercede for us; God is the true miracle worker. Their elevation to Blessed is not a glory to them, but rather a glory to God. We thank the Lord for each and every miracle.

Venerable

There are several steps to being declared a saint. It can be a process that takes decades or even centuries. The prerequisite for the process is death. Once a person dies, the diocese at a local level will gather evidence to submit to the Vatican. The hope is that the Vatican Congregation for the Causes of Saints will determine the person’s life is one of heroic virtue. With their recommendation, the Pope will review and declare an upgrade of their title from Servant of God to Venerable.

The package of documentation is quite rigorous and requires sealed or certified originals to ensure authenticity. The Vatican Congregation spends as much time as it needs to pour and pray over the received information, conducting interviews and reviewing the person’s life from many different perspectives. This review occurs in two stages, first by a group of theologians then by the cardinal and bishop members of the Congregation. There are fourteen Venerables identified by the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops (USCCB). 

While preparing a presentation about saints for RCIA, I stumbled upon the story of Venerable Pierre Toussaint. He was born a slave in Haiti, was brought to New York by his master’s wife, and allowed to train as a hairdresser. He was so successful that when the family fell on hard times, he was able to provide for the family that owned him. He was freed at the age of 41 and continued his charity, not only among the poor but also donating in the building of Old Saint Patrick’s Cathedral in the early 1800s. The story is told that at its dedication when he was refused entrance because of his race, he apologized and turned to leave but was stopped by another usher who recognized him and immediately invited him into the building he helped finance. Both Pierre and Old Saint Patrick’s crossed my path again when “The Oratorio: A Documentary by Martin Scorsese” about the roots of opera in New York City aired on PBS. I was delighted to see Pierre’s story included as part of the history of this church.

In reviewing the life of Venerable Fulton John Sheen, I was surprised to see his birth year as 1895, which seems so long ago. Yet he is no stranger to modern conveniences, as he pioneered television evangelization back in the 1950’s when there were only three channels available. His charismatic style mezmorized viewers both Catholic and non-Catholic alike. To date, he’s the only American bishop to win two Emmys for Most Outstanding Television Personality. Numerous times have I been researching Catholic topics and Google suggests one or two of his Life is Worth Living episodes on YouTube. I alway seem to end up watching in rapt attention, even when it is only in black-and-white! The way he passed on tugged at my heart, as he died in his chapel during Adoration. I don’t think there could be a better way to go.

These two men are another example of the diversity of people and lives within the Catholic family. Each continues to impact people today: Pierre through the support he gave to Old Saint Patrick’s and Bishop Sheen with his television programs. In the Communion of Saints — both named and those on their way, it does not matter if we are separated by a few decades or a century, we are still connected as brothers and sisters in Jesus Christ. 

Servant of God

November is the end of the liturgical year for Catholics and our focus turns towards the end of time. The readings for Mass take on a sense of ugent remembering for what awaits us at the end of life. It should not be surprising that the month starts with the feast of All Saints. The Church in her wisdom draws our attention to those who are cheering us on from their place in heaven. Yet the path to being declared a saint has several steps, the first is being named a Servant of God.

The process for sainthood begins at a local diocesen level. After a person who has the reputation for living a life of holiness dies, an investigation into their life begins the process of potentially being declared a saint. During this investigation, the person’s life is examined to determine if their life reflected a pursuit of improving their holiness and heroic virtue. Every aspect of their life is reviewed, any correspondence, writings, journals, and the like are scrutinized. While a person’s past may contain some less-than-holy times, it is how the person responded to those times that matters: did they repent and seek a closer walk with God? Once a cause is opened at the diocese level, the person receives the title of Servant of God

I read Black Elk Speaks way back in my college years as part of a Native American Literature class. I remember enjoying the book with its rich details of tribal life. And in researching people who are considered Servants of God, the name Nicholas Black Elk caught my attention. Wondering if the two were related, I was surprised to find out they are one in the same! In reviewing the website supporting Nicholas’ cause, I was amazed to find that he embraced Catholicism and had become a catechist to his people. While it was sad reading his disappointment in how the story of his life only included, as he referred to it, his pagan life, his passionate embrace of God was still equally refreshing. He was proud to be a catechist and the story of his life is not complete unless one includes all of it. He lived about 20 years more after the book was written, and from a Catholic perspective, those were the best years.

I read He Leadeth Me over several months during weekly Eucharistic adoration. It is an amazing reflection of the spiritual struggles of Servant of God Father Walter Ciszek, S.J., who was born in Shenandoah, PA (my parent’s hometown.) After ordination, he served in Poland and made his way into Russia, where in 1941, he was captured as a “Vatican spy.” He spent 20 years in Soviet prisons and labor camps in Siberia, working in dehumanizing and soul-sucking conditions. Yet even here, Fr. Ciszek was able to minister to his fellow inmates (mostly in secret.) And long after his family thought he was dead, his family began to receive letters from him after his release and he was returned to the United States in 1963. 

The lives of these two men cannot be more different, more diverse. Both answered the call from God to fulfill the purpose He had for their lives. Each is a model for us in how to love God and our neighbors as ourselves. No matter if they are officially declared a saint or not, we can ask these holy men to intercede for us in our moments of challenge and affliction. 

To fear or not to fear

At this time of the year, fear seems to be something everyone is excited about. However, the fear of being afraid and scared with Halloween horror festivities is what people are looking for nowadays, not fear of the Lord.

In reviewing the definition for the word fear, there are two very opposite meanings. One is to be aware or anticipate danger. This definition fits the etymology of the word, as its origins seem to trace back through Old Saxon for “lurking danger,” Old Norse for “evil, mischief, plague,” and possibly sharing a verbal based from Indo-European of per, meaning “test or risk” (which is from where the word peril comes). None of these would fit the second meaning which is a feeling of respect and wonder for something powerful. “Fear of the Lord” falls into the second definition.

It seems strange to associate a word that has strong negative connotations with God, yet Fear of the Lord is not just an idea thrown about in religious circles, but is a gift of the Holy Spirit. In researching where in the Bible Jesus says not to be afraid, I found not just a few instances, but a whole webpage with 365 citations within both the Old and New Testaments that express that sentiment! If the Bible has a verse for everyday that tells us not to fear, why does the Holy Spirit give us the gift of fear? 

Perhaps it’s best to dive even deeper into word meanings, specifically that of the word danger. One of the meanings is “exposure or liability to injury, pain, harm, or loss.” If we focus on the word loss, we now get closer to what Fear of the Lord really means. This gift serves as a warning system to realize how precious our relationship with God is and to be concerned to lose it through sin. Through this realization, we are called to be sorrowful for our sins, seeking to turn back to God to ask for his forgiveness and repair the damage that our sins cause. It also prompts us to contemplate God’s love for us. He is constantly seeking us out and bringing us closer to Him. If we receive this gift with an open heart we will be able, through God’s grace, to cultivate the virtue of humility. As we seek to embrace the gift, we also look to share it with others and it motivates us to bring others to a relationship with God. 

Fear of the Lord is also counter-cultural in our time. It calls us to recognize the supreme goodness of God and all of the gifts He gives us. This is in contrast to what many advertisements would sell us in doing whatever we please. When we place God at the center of our life, living in fear and humility, we’re no longer obsessed with trying to obtain feelings and things that society tells us we need. Our culture also likes to emphasize the negative aspects of fearing God from a justice and punishment standpoint. Yet we are the ones who seem to be keeping “score” of our own detriment. Yes, we need to be sorrowful, repent of our sins, and lean into God’s grace to avoid sinning again. We need to learn from our mistakes but not dwell in them. If God can forgive us, we need to forgive ourselves as well.

When we are receptive to the Holy Spirit’s gift of Fear of the Lord, all other fears within our culture and society fade from our focus. “The fear of the Lord is like a garden of blessing, and covers a man better than any glory.” (Sirach 40:27) Not just in this season of Halloween, but everyday, let us open our hearts to the gifts of the Holy Spirit, unwrapping them thoroughly and putting them to good use, most especially the Fear of the Lord gift.

Life pursuits

I think most Americans are familiar with the line from the Declaration of Independence, “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.” But as Catholics there is one pursuit that ranks above these, the pursuit of holiness.

When we think of a holy person, we immediately think of the saints. But they lived  life on earth just as we do, facing all the temptations that we face. Sometimes they succeeded in the battle against sin and sometimes not. Only two people lived without sin: Jesus and His Mother Mary. There may be a priest or religious that we may consider as holy, chalking it up to their vocation. But holiness is not limited to those professing religious vows. All baptized Christians are called to a holy way of life that will result in eternal happiness with God, and thus also becoming a saint. So what does it mean to be holy?

In the Old Testament, to be holy was to be set apart from the everyday, the ordinary, and to be dedicated to the service of God. God is what made things holy, His blessing and His grace. Israel, as a nation, was to be holy — set apart from the rest of the nations and called to live according to God’s commands. Israel, however, struggled in this endeavor. They sought a king to rule them, just like the other nations around them. Interaction and intermarriage with those nations exposed them to other religions. They soon began to practice them and failed to keep God’s commands. 

How can following God’s commands make us holy? That’s not quite the right question to ask.  We cannot make ourselves holy by what we do, but instead we need to participate and respond to God. We need to seek a relationship with God. If we ask how we can seek this, the answer is by following the Commandments, especially the first three.

First, in order to seek God, we need to put Him first in our daily lives. We need to reach out through prayer, being open to His response. While we may pray through words and speech (or thought), God can answer in a myriad of ways: in another’s response to us, in coincidence, in a surprise or in an unexpected event or encounter, etc. Secondly, we need to be mindful of our speech. What we say indicates our attitudes towards that of which we are speaking. If we deny God’s ability to help us, He will respect just that, even if deep down we wish that He would. If we throw around God’s name, or even the name of Jesus Christ, as if it is like any other word, we abuse any relationship we have with Him. Thirdly, we are called to take time weekly to dive deeper into our relationship with God, dedicating time spent with Him in the Mass as well as other spiritual practices. Lastly, we need to follow all other Commandments and Beatitudes, as a relationship with God does not mean excluding or ignoring everyone and everything that bears the signature of the Creator. 

If we want happiness in our lives, if we want to live free, then we need to pursue holiness first throughout our life on earth. The result will be to have the best life there is: eternal life spent in the presence of God.

Prayer community

To pray a Catholic prayer is to pray in community with the whole Church: past, present and future. If we mean what we say and say what we mean, we truly are a Catholic — that is universal — Church.

I pray it when I first wake up in the morning. I pray it during morning and evening prayers as I follow them with the Magnificat. I pray it during the Rosary and the Divine Mercy Chaplet. The Our Father is a prayer given to us by Jesus Himself. Yet, as a single person praying all by my lonesome (except for my cat Vera), I continue to start the prayer with Our. I don’t start it as My Father, but Our Father, indicating more than just me. Why is it so important that we call God as Our Father, especially if we want to have a personal relationship with Him? But watch any two-year-old with a toy they claim as “mine” and it makes perfect sense for the Church to continually remind us that we are a family of God. I may be saying the Our Father in the comfort of my home, but someone else could be walking to work and saying it at the same time that I am. Or a Mass on the other side of the world may be reciting the same lines that I am at the same time I do. It’s rather amazing to think we join others across the globe as we all pray the same prayer, even if it’s in a different language.

While the Our Father may be the most obvious of Catholic prayers, it was the Grace before meals that really got me started thinking about the language used in them. “Bless us, O Lord, and these Thy gifts, which we are about to receive from Thy bounty, through Christ our Lord. Amen.” I say this prayer before each meal, and I started to notice all the plural references. I tried changing it up so that it used singular language, but I would inevitably leave one word as plural, usually the “our”. For this prayer, I thought about using the excuse that I was praying on Vera’s behalf as well, but she usually eats before I do and she only gets morning and evening meals. So who are the “us” we are asking to be blessed and who is it that is receiving the gifts of nourishment? It was then I realized that the most basic of prayers had Our as the first word. Even in the Hail Mary, we ask her to “pray for us sinners now, and at the hour of our death.”  

We could be exclusive and say we are only praying using pluralistic language on behalf of other Catholics, but I think it goes beyond who we know, beyond our denomination as Roman Catholics, and even beyond Christianity itself. While we may be joining other like-minded individuals even if we are unaware they are praying the same way, our pluralistic language is inclusive to all God’s children, regardless of creed, perhaps even beyond the boundaries of time and space. Likewise, any prayers said by those who came before us, along with those that will be said in the future include a plea to God on our behalf. God, who is beyond time and space, gathers all our prayers together. In His Love, He unites us and our prayers. Those who wish for singularity, wish separation from the prayer community and run the risk of imitating Satan, the one who scatters. 

Through prayer, we are never alone before God. Let us mean the words we proclaim to include all of God’s children, drawing strength in numbers from those praying along with us. 

Location matters

I woke up Sunday  intending to go to the early Mass at my church. I incorrectly remembered the starting time and got there 30 minutes before its scheduled start. As I was looking around a near empty church, I noticed something that has been there the entire time I’ve belonged to the parish, yet it was like I was seeing it for the first time.

The worship space in my church is an open circle with the altar in the center and pews around it. There is a separate room off to the side that contains the tabernacle. If I sit in a particular section of the worship space, I can see the tabernacle through the glass doors, unless there are too many tall people sitting in the section between. As I gazed over to the tabernacle, I realized the baptismal font was running. This is not unusual as the water is usually circulated before and after Mass. The location of the font happens to be between my usual seat and the tabernacle. What a wonderful sense of physical illustration: we need to be baptized in order to have a relationship with God and fully participate in the Catholic life. We need to make a choice to live our baptismal promises every day in order to get to heaven. As the tabernacle contains the consecrated hosts, it is the closest thing to heaven we have on earth. I also noticed that the crucifix that is carried into the worship space at the beginning of Mass was in its stand just beyond the baptismal font. From my direction, it was as if the church was saying you need to be baptized, pick up your cross and carry it through to heaven (the tabernacle). 

I’ve sat in that general area many times before for Mass, and I never realized how all those items aligned. Churches have been built to raise the awareness of the parishioners and to teach them specifics of the faith. Many of the stain-glass windows are intended to teach about the life of Jesus or of a saint. Some churches are built in the shape of a cross, so that at the very heart of worship, the congregation takes the shape of salvation. When we attend Mass, are we aware of how our surroundings lift us up in worship? Many of us are creatures of habit, sitting in the same area week after week at the same Mass, but why is that location special to you? Can you describe why you chose that spot, or did it choose you? I choose to sit in the section I do because I can get at least a glimpse of the tabernacle. With people sitting in the next section, I don’t always get a complete and unobscured view like I did when I was early. Perhaps the other sections of the church would prompt different thoughts for reflection if I sat in them.

While the most important element is to be wholly present during the Mass and for the Eucharist, where you choose or end up sitting may add significance as you open your heart and mind to the Holy Spirit and let Him reveal Himself to you.

Whack-a-sin

In a recent video by Fr. Mike Schmitz, The Price of Forgiveness, he calls a distinction between saying “Sorry” and asking for forgiveness. When reflecting on this, the oddest thought popped into my head: the game of whack-a-mole, only instead of moles, it was our sins.

Originally created in Japan in the 1970’s, the whack-a-mole game typically features a number of holes from where moles randomly pop up and the player uses a mallet to strike the mole back into the hole. The timing of the moles popping up increases with play until the time limit is reached, usually well beyond a person’s ability to correctly see and strike the mole when it pops up. 

In trying to live a life of faith and avoid sin, we can end up in a pattern similar to the game. When we seriously approach the sacrament of reconciliation, we commit to avoiding sinning in the same way again. While thankfully God does not limit how many times we can be forgiven for the same sin, we are still obliged to try avoiding it. Sometimes we pick one sin to focus on, investigating the whys and hows in order to determine what we need to do to elude the sin again. Then when we feel confident, we pick another sin to focus on, only to realize we’ve relapsed into the sin we thought we conquered. It can be incredibly frustrating, just like a game of whack-a-mole, where our sins keep popping up despite all of our efforts. 

Perhaps the whack-a-mole effect is when we say “Sorry” to God, even being contrite, but feeling that the habitual sin is too strong to avoid. If we take the weight of that sin into our spiritual hands and own it, as Fr. Mike describes, could we dig deeper into that sin and allow God’s grace to penetrate and slowly heal us? Can we imagine our lives without committing that sin? Or, is it like a nicely worn pair of slippers that we insist on wearing, simply because they are comfortable? Perhaps we are convinced that we are solely responsible for changing ourselves and we are trying to prove to God that we can change. Or just maybe, we see the sin as a challenge and enjoy playing the game, flirting with the sin despite its tendency to frustrate us. 

The objection could be raised as St. Paul said in his second letter to the Corinthians that “a thorn was given me in the flesh, as messenger of Satan, to harass me, to keep me from being too elated.” Even after begging God to remove it, God replied, “My grace is sufficient for you, for my power is made perfect in weakness.” (2 Cor 12: 7-9) God can certainly use our sin patterns to teach us compassion for others, compassion for ourselves, and to bring us closer to Him. However, most of us are not like Paul, nor do we enjoy the same type of relationship with God  he did. I think the most important take-away from Paul’s statement, is that he, too, was a sinner even after he converted to follow Jesus Christ. We should use this as a tool to deflect discouragement when we find ourselves repeating the same sin, but not use it as an excuse to continue sinning and taking God’s mercy for granted.  

I don’t want to play games with God’s mercy. The price Jesus willingly paid for my sins and the relationship I strive to have with Him requires me to seek His forgiveness, His mercy, and His help. Eternal life with Him is too precious to risk in an endeavor that has no winner. 

Laughter in the Bible

I didn’t expect to see the word laugh that often in the Bible. After over 245 episodes of the Bible in a Year podcast, it was the last chapter of Daniel that caught me by surprise. Daniel laughed at the king for his belief in Bel, the god of the Babylonians.

I was familiar with a few of the stories in Daniel, but this one was new to me. The king, who is friends with Daniel, inquires as to why Daniel does not believe Bel to be a living god, based on the amount of food the god consumes. “Daniel began to laugh. ‘Do not be deceived, O king,’ he said; ‘it is only clay inside and bronze outside; it has never taken any food or drink.’” (Dan 14:7) The king is enraged and suggests that the priest prove that Daniel is blaspheming, with the result being either the death of the priests or the death of Daniel. The priests agree and have the king set the food out in the temple and secure the door with his signet. Prior to the sealing of the door, Daniel has ashes distributed on the floor. The next day the seal is unbroken when the king and Daniel return. At first the king is delighted to see the food consumed. “But Daniel laughed and kept the king from entering. ‘Look at the floor,’ he said; ‘whose footprints are these?’ ‘I see the footprints of men, women, and children!’ said the king.” (Dan 14:19-20) The priests then show the hidden entrance by which they and their families come and consume the food, which results in their death.

Not just once, but twice does Daniel laugh in reaction to the king. At first it seems an odd reaction, yet there could be multiple reasons for this. The beginning of the chapter does indicate that Daniel is friends with the sovereign. Perhaps the friendship is so deep, that Daniel’s reaction is one that we would all share if someone we were close to had an incorrect assumption. I don’t think Daniel is laughing at the king, as if the king was inferior to Daniel’s wisdom. I think it shows the true bond of friendship that Daniel had with the king, including laughing at each other’s moments of silliness. 

Another possibility is Daniel’s age. He has been in the courts of several of the Babylonian kings. Perhaps his laughter was more from a wise person who sees the passionate, and stubborn, beliefs of youth. I’m not as fond of this possibility because it does lend itself to Daniel thinking himself superior to the king. Even if Daniel’s age gave  him a higher level of wisdom than the king, the rest of the book of Daniel doesn’t show him as the type to have a superiority complex. 

Lastly, Daniel may have laughed because of his firm belief in the Lord God of his ancestors. Previous stories of Daniel also illustrate wise methods for addressing those who are lying. Perhaps his wisdom is divinely inspired due to his complete and total worship of the one, true God. Daniel relies on God for everything, and even though his life was threatened because of his worship, he was unwavering in his beliefs. Throughout the various rulers, Daniel held fast to his belief in God, and was rewarded with positions of power and relationship with kings. This is the kind of faith in God that I want, one that will have me laughing despite having my earthly life at risk. 

Whether it was one reason or a combination of all three, it was nice to see laughter in the Bible. Perhaps it’s also a bit of a challenge to us to cultivate strong friendships with others, so that we can explore others’ feelings and beliefs and share the good news of our beliefs with them in return.